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International Edition Winners - 2012: India, Target 2, Grade: 11

International Edition Winners - 2012: India, Target 2, Grade: 11


Deepsh Bharti
Saturn's F ring
Target 2, Saturn's F ring
Deepesh Bharti

Gayatri Vidya Peeth
11th Grade
Rajnandgaon, Chattisgarh

Teacher: Mr. Saransh Jain


"Among all the rings of Saturn, my favorite is F ring. I want to share my views about F ring.

The F ring was discovered in 1979 by the Pioneer 11 imaging team. The F ring is the outermost discrete ring of SATURN and perhaps the most active ring in the Solar System. The narrow F ring, just off the outer edge of the A ring, is more difficult to categorize; parts of it are very dense, but it also contains a great deal of dust-size particles .It is located 3,000 km beyond the outer edge of the A ring. SATURN's F ring is the closest and accordingly, best studied archetype. The F ring's equivalent depth is found to have no significant dependence on wavelength between 0.27 and 0.74 um, indicating the presence of a population of ring particles larger in size than 10 um.

Located just 3,500 km exterior to the outer edge of the Saturn's main rings, the F ring seems to be confined by two shepherding satellites , 'PROMETHEUS and PANDORA'. The F ring is very thin, just a few hundred kilometers in radial extent, and is held together by two shepherd moons, Prometheus and Pandora, which orbit inside and outside it.

Prometheus acts as a shepherd satellite for the inner edge of Saturn's F ring. The most appreciable changes in their orbits occur approximately every 6.2 years, when the periapsis of Pandora lines up with the apoapsis of Prometheus and the moons approach to within about 1400 km.Pandora is the outer shepherd satellite of the Saturn's F ring. It is more heavily catered than nearby Prometheus, and has at least two large craters 30 km in diameter. From its very low density, it seems likely that Pandora is a very porous icy body. The separation between the A ring and the F ring has been named the Roche Division. The Roche Division is a physical concept that describes when a large object gets so close to a planet that the planet's tidal forces will pull it apart.There are 27 statistically significant features in Saturn's F ring. Features are divided into three morphological classes: Moonlet, Icicle and Core. Icicle and Moonlet correspond to aggregates elongated in azimuth.

At last, I want to say that I have chosen this target because F ring of Saturn is the most weird and dynamic ring and it is very interesting topic to discuss. The F ring core is the brightest strand and ever changing ring. It has bizarre behavior and it is very active. The structure is constantly changing due to wavelike kinks and ripples caused by the gravitational of two tiny moons, Prometheus and Pandora."